Principles of CAD/CAM/CAE
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Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing. Virtual Engineering. Standards for Communicating between Systems. He previously was a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a visiting professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The third source of CAD development resulted from efforts to facilitate the flow from the design process to the manufacturing process using numerical control NC technologies, which enjoyed widespread use in many applications by the mids.
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The development of CAD and CAM and particularly the linkage between the two overcame traditional NC shortcomings in expense, ease of use, and speed by enabling the design and manufacture of a part to be undertaken using the same system of encoding geometrical data. This innovation greatly shortened the period between design and manufacture and greatly expanded the scope of production processes for which automated machinery could be economically used.
Computers are also used to control a number of manufacturing processes such as chemical processing that are not strictly defined as CAM because the control data are not based on geometrical parameters. Using CAD, it is possible to simulate in three dimensions the movement of a part through a production process.
This process can simulate feed rates, angles and speeds of machine tools, the position of part-holding clamps, as well as range and other constraints limiting the operations of a machine. The continuing development of the simulation of various manufacturing processes is one of the key means by which CAD and CAM systems are becoming increasingly integrated.
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This is of particular importance when one firm contracts another to either design or produce a component. Modeling with CAD systems offers a number of advantages over traditional drafting methods that use rulers, squares, and compasses. For example, designs can be altered without erasing and redrawing.
CAD systems also offer "zoom" features analogous to a camera lens, whereby a designer can magnify certain elements of a model to facilitate inspection. Computer models are typically three dimensional and can be rotated on any axis, much as one could rotate an actual three dimensional model in one's hand, enabling the designer to gain a fuller sense of the object. CAD systems also lend themselves to modeling cutaway drawings, in which the internal shape of a part is revealed, and to illustrating the spatial relationships among a system of parts. CAD systems have no means of comprehending real-world concepts, such as the nature of the object being designed or the function that object will serve.
CAD systems function by their capacity to codify geometrical concepts.
Lecture 1 Funamentals of CAD-CAM-CAE.pdf - MENG 4322...
Thus the design process using CAD involves transferring a designer's idea into a formal geometrical model. Efforts to develop computer-based "artificial intelligence" AI have not yet succeeded in penetrating beyond the mechanical—represented by geometrical rule-based modeling.
Other limitations to CAD are being addressed by research and development in the field of expert systems. This field is derived from research done in AI. One example of an expert system involves incorporating information about the nature of materials—their weight, tensile strength, flexibility, and so on—into CAD software. By including this and other information, the CAD system could then "know" what an expert engineer knows when that engineer creates a design.
The system could then mimic the engineer's thought pattern and actually "create" more of the design. Expert systems might involve the implementation of more abstract principles, such as the nature of gravity and friction, or the function and relation of commonly used parts, such as levers or nuts and bolts.
CAD/CAM in a Complex Industrial Environment | SpringerLink
Such futuristic concepts, however, are all highly dependent on our abilities to analyze human decision processes and to translate these into mechanical equivalents if possible. One of the key areas of development in CAD technologies is the simulation of performance. Among the most common types of simulation are testing for response to stress and modeling the process by which a part might be manufactured or the dynamic relationships among a system of parts.
In stress tests, model surfaces are shown by a grid or mesh, that distort as the part comes under simulated physical or thermal stress.
Dynamics tests function as a complement or substitute for building working prototypes.