Dictionary of Mental Handicap

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On this view, the main reason people with disabilities encounter hardship is because they suffer discrimination along the same lines as racial or ethnic minorities. Accordingly, civil rights protections and anti-discrimination laws are the proper responses to disability e. This suggests the human variation model, according to which many of the challenges faced by disabled people do not result from their deliberate exclusion, but from a mismatch between their characteristics and the physical and social environment.

This view of disabilities as human variations is closely related to the view that disability is a universal human condition Zola, or shared human identity Davis, , Ch. The claim that disability is universal can be taken as nothing more than a prediction that we will all acquire familiar disabilities at some time in our lives. But that claim is better construed as one about the nature of disability; as maintaining that all human beings have physical or mental variations that can become a source of vulnerability or disadvantage in some settings.


These two versions of the social model are not incompatible, differing mainly in emphasis. The discrimination stressed by the minority group model generally leads to, and is expressed in, the societal failure to accommodate people with various differences. In some contexts, it is appropriate to analogize people with disabilities to racial minorities; in others, it is important to reject a dichotomy between disability and normality and treat impairments as continuous variations.

If one goal of social policy is to remove discrimination and its enduring disadvantages, another is to encompass the full range of human variation in the design of the physical environment and social practices. Although the social model, in one version or another, is now the dominant legislative, social-science, and humanities paradigm for understanding disability, stronger versions, particularly the British Social Model, have been subject to extensive criticism.

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  3. mental retardation;

Some argue that an adequate conceptualization of disability requires a recognition of impairments as an objective basis for classification, to distinguish disability discrimination from other types of discrimination Bickenbach, Several critics argue that extreme versions of the model implausibly deny or understate the role of impairment itself as a source of disadvantage Anastasiou and Kauffman, ; Terzi, , ; Shakespeare, Others, however, contend that this criticism is misplaced, because the British Social Model does not deny the importance of impairments but rather seeks to restrict the notion of "disability" to social exclusion and oppression Beaudry, Another objection is that the social as well as the medical model both rest on a false dichotomy between biological impairments and social limitations.

There are two versions of this objection. One maintains that disability is a complex phenomenon, in which biological impairment and social exclusion are deeply interwoven and difficult to tease apart Martiny ; Anastasiou and Kauffman, The other version of this objection rejects the treatment of impairment as a strictly biological phenomenon.

Moreover, the social environment appears to play a significant role in identifying and, arguably, in creating some impairments dyslexia Cole, ; Shakespeare, ; Davis, , Ch 1; Tremain, ; Amundson, What counts as an impairment may depend on which variations appear to be disadvantageous in familiar or salient environments, or on which variations are subject to social prejudice: Less-than-average height may be more readily classified as an impairment than greater-than-average height because the former is more often disadvantageous in environments designed for people of average height, or because it is generally seen as less desirable.

For such reasons, it is difficult to establish the objectivity of the impairment classification by appeal to a clear and undisputed biomedical norm. Amundson goes so far as to deny that there is any biological basis for a concept of functional normality—a claim emphatically rejected by Boorse Rather, she argues that being classified as having an impairment is an integral part of the social process of disablement.

Such criticism parallels the debate among gender theorists about whether we can distinguish sex from gender on the ground that gender is socially constructed whereas sex is not. Thus, some critics conclude that it is at best oversimplified and at worst futile to distinguish biological impairments from social limitations, or to attempt to separate and compare the biological and social contributions to the disadvantages of people with disabilities But even those who believe that the impairment classification can be defended in biomedical terms recognize that impairments are not merely biologically-defined atypicalities but also markers for discrimination—discrimination that may be reinforced by the conviction that it is a response to objective biological attributes.

Anita Silvers has argued that a it is both possible and desirable to construct a neutral, value-free model of disability, using strictly descriptive criteria to identify atypical forms and functions, thereby allowing scholars with conflicting views to debate their normative and policy significance.

The medical and social models suggest although they do not imply different views about the impact of disability on well-being, and different views about how disability is relevant to reproductive decisions, medical interventions, and social policy. Those who accept a social model of disability regard the association between disability and well-being as highly contingent, mediated by a variety of environmental and social factors. They question conceptions of well-being that give a central role to the possession or exercise of the standard array of physical and mental functions, as those conceptions imply, or are often taken to imply, that well-being is precluded or diminished merely by the absence or limitation of those functions.

These differences are reflected in the conflicting assessments of life with disabilities found in the bioethics and public policy literature on the one hand, and disability scholarship on the other contrast Brock, with Goering, The different models of disability also seem to favor different responses to disability. The medical model appears to support the correction of the biological condition or some form of compensation when that is impractical; the minority group model appears to favor measures to eliminate or compensate for exclusionary practices and recognize their injustice; the human variation model appears to favor reconstruction of the physical and social environment to take into account a wider range of differences in human structure and function.

Importantly, such reconstruction may also be supported by the minority group model as an antidiscrimination measure, since that model views exclusionary environments and practices as the characteristic form of discrimination against people with disabilities. The human variation model may just make explicit the appropriate social response to disability in a society without exclusion or discrimination. But claims about the causes of disadvantage do not always yield straightforward prescriptions for their remediation Wasserman, ; Samaha, The proper response to the disadvantages associated with disability depends not only on causal attributions but also on moral judgments about responsibility, respect, justice.

The debates over cleft lip surgery and breast reconstruction after mastectomy are not only about the comparative importance of biological and social factors in making the treated conditions disadvantageous. They also concern whether those interventions are justifiable uses of scarce medical resources, and whether they are complicit with suspect norms Little, , as in the case of skin-lighteners for people of color Asch, Although it is subject to dispute and qualification, the distinction between biological impairment and social limitation is relevant to many normative and policy issues, especially those concerning the choice between measures that modify the disabled individual or alter his environment.

In this section, we consider the role of that distinction in addressing the critical question of how the experiences of people with disabilities are relevant to those issues. The disability rights movement has long complained that the perspectives of people with disabilities are too often ignored or discounted. The slogan that served as the title for James Charlton's book, Nothing About Us Without Us Charlton, ; Stone, has often been invoked to demand the inclusion of people with disabilities in policy making and research concerning disability.

The slogan suggests that they have both a unique perspective to bring to those activities and a right to take part in them. Such questions are best approached in terms of the two aspects of impairments recognized by most disability theorists: as structural or functional atypicalities, and as markers for discrimination. These two aspects of impairment roughly correspond with two distinct types of disability experience:. There may be more commonalities in one kind of experience than the other, and greater relevance to specific research or policy issues.

Further, the epistemic and moral authority of statements made by people with disabilities about their experiences may vary with the kind of experience they describe. The first type of experience involves the particularities of living with atypical embodiment or functioning. The experience of atypical functioning or sensing may be far more salient for someone getting to know a person with a disability than it is to the person herself.

It may also be highly salient to a person who is recently impaired, trying to function without limbs or senses that she used to have. But the experience of loss and frustration becomes less salient with time, peer and professional support, as she gets more immersed in going about day-to-day life. A person who can see but not hear has very different sensory experiences from a person who can hear but not see, who in turn has very different experiences from a person who can see and hear but cannot move his legs. Further, their experience of life with an impairment may vary with the kinds of activity they engage in, and how they regard their impairments as affecting their opportunities for self-fulfillment.

Opportunities in turn may be influenced by all the factors, unrelated to impairment, that affect everyone: the family and neighborhood in which one grows up or now lives; one's disposition or personality; the financial resources at one's disposal; or one's education, religion, sex, or race. Moreover, people's experience of living with an atypical function sometimes may be difficult to distinguish from their experience of stigma and discrimination. Despite these differences, the experiences of living with diverse impairments have one thing in common—they are likely to be ignored, or given insufficient weight, in the design of the physical and social environment.

In constructing buildings, transit systems, and work schedules, they often fail to listen carefully to what people with various impairments say about their experiences of daily living. Those experiences cannot be adequately simulated by spending a day in a wheelchair or walking around with a blindfold—indeed, the confusion and disorientation that nondisabled people experience in simulating impairments is a very misleading guide to the way people with disabilities experience and negotiate the activities of daily living.

Moreover, in learning about the experiences of living with atypical functions, planners and policy makers cannot take any single impairment as representative. The experiences of people with different impairments differ as much from each other as they do from the experiences of nondisabled people. As the human variation model emphasizes, the very diversity of impairments poses an important challenge for an inclusive society.

They will experience something of the stigma and discrimination that cut across impairments. The second type of disability experience, then, is of attitudinal barriers to ordinary activity that are facts of life for people with disabilities. These negative responses involve several elements. The most discussed is overt stigmatization and discrimination: being treated as a social outcast, losing out on jobs, friends, or partners, because other people do not want to interact with a person with a disability, or enduring grossly inadequate accommodation because reasonable accommodation is thought too costly or troublesome.

But there are also less overt ways that society makes living with a disability difficult. Simply being different from the majority of the population, in a way that the majority makes salient, can make people with disabilities feel isolated or alienated. This experience is similar to those not only of other stigmatized minorities, such as African-Americans or LGBTs, but of people with atypical characteristics who may not form a distinct political or cultural minority but are nonetheless constantly reminded of their difference.

It is in the social construction of disability that we move from the particularity of any one disability toward the common social experiences of people with disabilities. Stigma, discrimination, and imputations of difference and inferiority are all parts of the social experience of disability. As one writer describes it, if he cooks it is because he doesn't want to be seen in public; if he eats in restaurants it is because he can't cook Brickner, Many nondisabled people assume that people with disabilities won't make good partners and cannot or should not become parents Safilios-Rothschild, ; Shakespeare, ; Asch and Fine, ; Wates, People with disabilities are perceived to be globally helpless based on their need for assistance with some facets of daily life Wright, , fueling the conviction that they are unable to render the help needed for successful partnership or parenting.

Most nondisabled people, after all, are not told that they are inspirations simply for giving the correct change at the drugstore.

Disability Definitions and Related Links

Just as there is great variation in how members of racial and sexual minorities experience stigmatization, however, disabled people's experience also varies. In claiming that the experience of stigma unites disabled people, we must be careful to acknowledge those differences. For example, a major source of variation is whether the disability is visible or invisible Davis, ; Banks and Kaschak, The alternative is to keep quiet and forgo needed assistance, which carries other costs, such as the stress of keeping a secret or trying to decide if a particular disclosure is safe Schneider and Conrad, ; Davis, In a similar way, both African-Americans and disabled people are frequently stereotyped as dependent or ineffectual.

And so African-Americans who are also disabled face a particularly high burden in overcoming these stereotypes. Moreover, some would argue that to the extent that people with disabilities have distinct and common experiences, they are due to embodiment as well as stigmatization. A disputed but much-discussed strand of feminist philosophy holds that the experience of being female differs in important ways from being male, regardless of cultural position, discrimination, or political and economic power.

On this view, women differ in some important ways from men because of the biology of femaleness and of childbearing, and those differences should be seen as gateways into philosophical and moral understanding Whitbeck, Debates about the experience of disability can be enriched by understanding these debates about other minority groups, even if disability differs in significant respects.

On the one hand, the biological reality of many significant impairments affects the experience of those with the impairments. On the other hand, different impairments shape experience in very different ways. These markup elements allow the user to see how the document follows the Document Drafting Handbook that agencies use to create their documents. These can be useful for better understanding how a document is structured but are not part of the published document itself.

More information and documentation can be found in our developer tools pages. If you are using public inspection listings for legal research, you should verify the contents of the documents against a final, official edition of the Federal Register. Only official editions of the Federal Register provide legal notice to the public and judicial notice to the courts under 44 U. Learn more here. This document has been published in the Federal Register. Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for the official electronic format.

This final rule adopts, without change, the notice of proposed rulemaking NPRM we published in the Federal Register on January 28, Rosa's Law did not specifically include titles II and XVI of the Act within its scope, and therefore, did not require any changes in our existing regulations. In so doing, we join other agencies that responded to the spirit of the law, even though Rosa's Law did not require them to change their terminology. We received 76 comments. The comments came from national advocacy and disability rights groups, professional organizations, disability examiners, parents, and members of the public.

We summarized and paraphrased the significant comments in our responses below. We carefully considered all of the comments. However, we did not make any changes to the final rule. Let's give this population the respect and dignity they deserve. This change is long overdue and [they] are glad SSA is taking this important step which will help fight stigma in this country. Response: We are glad that the overwhelming majority of commenters favored our proposed change and we decided to finalize the proposed rule without change.

A fourth commenter said that while the change in terminology may make people feel good, the new term is not as descriptive as the current terminology. Response: We did not adopt this suggestion. While we appreciate the concerns expressed in these comments, the term we use to describe a medical disorder does not affect the actual medical definition of the disorder or available programs or services.

Department of Education.

Ch 1. Introduction

Response: We did not adopt these suggestions. He suggested that we include an explanation about the breadth of conditions encompassed by the new term in a definitions section. In conjunction with publication of this final rule revising the name of current listings The final rule will apply to only the name of listings We will fully train our adjudicators on the effect of this name change.

Start Printed Page The name of any disorder, whether mental or physical, in no way directs our findings regarding disability. By the end of the century, however, the new terms were also used in derogatory ways. We consulted with the Office of Management and Budget OMB and determined that this final rule does not meet the criteria for a significant regulatory action under Executive Order , as supplemented by Executive Order We certify that this final rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities because it affects individuals only.

Therefore, the Regulatory Flexibility Act, as amended, does not require us to prepare a regulatory flexibility analysis. While this rule will not impose new public reporting burdens, it will require changes to existing OMB-approved information collections that contain the language referenced in this rule. Term used by educators to refer to the integration of children with disabilities into regular classes for part or all of the school day. Strategies that seek to maximize the value of services by controlling their cost and use.

Quality is promoted and measured to ensure cost effectiveness. The program is funded by both federal and state money, but is administered by the state. A federal health insurance program run by the Health Care Financing Administration that includes both hospital and medical insurance. Current terminology is Intellectual Disability. This disability originates before age Five assumptions essential to the application of the definition are: 1 Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual's age, peers and culture.

Workers on short-term contracts who serve as role models for workers with disabilities.

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This allows flexibility within the work force to develop diversified contracts. Term for students having two or more significant impairments, one of which is cognitive. Historically this was referred to as Multiple Handicapped. Neuro Developmental Treatment. A specific therapeutic technique to help a child gain more normal movement patterns. New Opportunities that bring Valuable Alternatives. A parent-funded DDRC program to help individuals with disabilities develop better connections to their community and support the Self-advocacy Program.

Supports and resources provided in the community by family, friends, neighbor, and others who are not paid to provide such supports. A behavior that results in removing something that the person does not like. Because the behavior allows the individual to stop or remove something that is unwanted, the behavior is likely to occur again.

Next time the person encounters a similar situation, the person is likely to turn the radio down again because it resulted in removing something that the person found aversive. See Escape Learning. The process of making available to people with disabilities patterns of life which are as close as possible to typical circumstances and ways of life in society. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. A act that applies to eligible individuals residing in or moving from nursing facilities.

OBRA gives Medicaid the right to access trusts. Therapist who uses purposeful activities to improve movement and coordination, visual perceptual skills, self-help skills, and reading skills. An OT is also trained to adapt equipment. Supreme Court decision affirming the right of individuals with disabilities to live in their community. Examination of the mouth including lips, jaw, teeth, hard and soft palate and tongue. The exam involves assessing both structure and function or movement to determine adequacy for speech.

The comprehension and adjustment of an individual to his or her environment. Refers to identity of persons, location and time. Orientation may also refer to training that new employees receive. A committee composed of individuals with children or relatives in the AVS program. The purpose of the committee is to promote the quality of life for individuals being served in the vocational program through supporting the development of activities that support choices and opportunities for community involvement, vocational training, and employment.

This committee meets on a regular basis. Personal Affordable Living, Inc. This organization owns condominiums and townhomes that it rents at affordable prices to adults with developmental disabilities who want to live independently. Prior Authorization Review. Process whereby requested services and levels of support are authorized by the state prior to access. The federal Plan to Achieve Self-sufficiency. A way for people who receive Social Security to set aside some of that money to help them achieve self-sufficiency without losing benefits.

Personal Care Alternative. A residential program up to three people, designed to meet the unique needs of the individuals. Pervasive Developmental Disorder. A broad category of disability that involves problems in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. Its major diagnosis is autism. Parent Education and Assistance for Kids. A parent education group focused on special education law and regulation.

Post Eligibility Treatment of Income. Applies to Medicaid programs and involves the portion of financial responsibility of the person. Education for All Handicapped Children Act of A federal law growing out of and strengthening previous acts. This is the core of federal funding for special education. Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of The law mandates special education services for children ages three to twenty-one and extends services for infants from birth to age two.

IDEIA reauthorizes the IDEA and maintains the basic principles of the law, a free appropriate public education for all students with disabilities, in the least restrictive environment; however, there are many changes and modifications to the IEP process and other aspects of the identification and evaluation of students with disabilities. Prevention Quality Indicators. These are conditions for which good outpatient care can potentially prevent the need for hospitalization or for which early intervention can prevent complications or more severe disease.

Reimbursement of specified services on a fee-for-service basis as opposed to paying for them as part of a capitation arrangement. The process by which sensory information is interpreted which gives experience or a given sensation meaning. Input activities of sensory or visual nature and output activities of motor or muscular nature.

The two are interrelated as parts of total activity. A condition when the central nervous system is unable to perceive and interpret visual and sensory input accurately and produces the appropriate motor response. An instructional task that has the following criteria: a who will do it; b under what circumstances; c at what time; d the standard acceptable; and e how to measure attainment.

A behavior that continues even after the need for it no longer exists and is not appropriate. Designing services and supports specifically around the individual needs and requests and based on what the individual already has in place that is working. A plan that focuses on the dreams and desires of an individual and the quality of the person's life.

An instructional approach to reading that stresses sounds of words in relation to their written representations. Science of speech pronunciation. Therapist who works with an individual, generally through exercise, to improve movement patterns. Protects people receiving Old Age Pension O. The child lies on his stomach with neck, shoulders and hips off the floor. This position helps develop the muscles that oppose gravity. Blood test performed soon after a child is born.

The test detects phenylketonuria, which is a metabolic disorder that fails to oxidize amino acids and untreated may result in an intellectual disability. A type of estate planning in which people decide to make a gift to an organization either during their lifetime or after their death. Planned gifts can be real estate, cash, stock, or other. Special relationships of an observer to his or her environment. Perception of objects being to the side of, behind, before, above or below.

The immediate presentation of something rewarding following a behavior which increases that behavior, typically hugs, praise, food, special activities and prizes. Legal document used to appoint someone to make health care decisions for a person who is not able to do so. Legal document used to appoint someone to make property decisions, such as selling property or making important investment decisions for a person who is not able to do so.

Power of Attorney is not the same as Guardianship. Prepares a participant for paid community employment. Includes teaching such concepts as attendance, task completion, problem solving and safety needed to obtain employment. The goal of this service is to help the participant obtain paid community employment within five years. An employee who is responsible for overseeing designated programs, the individuals receiving services from those programs, and compliance with regulations.

Drugs which affect mental activity, behavior or perception. Psychotropic drugs include tranquilizers, sedatives, and anti-depressants. Type One Punishment: Type One punishment procedures consist of presenting a stimulus contingent on a behavior which, in turn, decreases the behavior from occurring. Type Two Punishment: Type Two punishment procedures consist of removing a stimulus contingent on a behavior which in turn decreases the behavior.

Prior to using Type Two punishment procedures you MUST receive prior approval from the Human Rights Committee, with the exception of exclusionary time out which is illegal to use with adults with developmental disabilities. Quality Improvement Organizations. QIOs are private, mostly not-for-profit organizations which are staffed by doctors and other health care professionals who are trained to review medical care and help beneficiaries with complaints about the quality of care and to implement improvements in the quality of care available throughout the spectrum of care.

An organized set of activities intended to systematically ensure minimal safety of people receiving services and to encourage performance improvements. Random Access Memory. RAM is a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers.

Routines Based Interview. A structured conversation that walks a family through each step of a typical day in their life. Regional Care Collaborative Organization. Connects Medicaid participants with Medicaid providers, helps them find community and social services in their area, and assists with coordination of care.

Request for Proposal. Generally an RFP is issued to suppliers of an item or a service indicating a desire to purchase on behalf of the entity issuing the RFP. The use of recreational activity in a directed program in the care, treatment and rehabilitation of ill, disabled, and elderly persons. Process of restoring to useful activity a person who has been ill or who is disabled.

Accomplished through education and therapy. Involves the analysis of a job task or independent living activity that presents a problem to a disabled person and correction or reduction of this problem. Accomplished through adaptive jigs to help job performance, improved positioning, or highly technical solutions. Services as stated in the Education for Handicapped Children's Act which are required to assist a child with disabilities to benefit from special education. A person or organization that is authorized to cash and manage public assistance checks Social Security, Supplemental Security Income for a person deemed incapable of doing so.

Part of the Home and Community Based Services for the Developmentally Disabled is the residential care provided for under the waiver. Services provided by resource coordinators of Community Centered Boards to assist in developmental disability determination, Service Plan development, the coordination of services and evaluation of services with maximum participation by the individual and his or her family, guardian or authorized representative. Named in honor of Dr. Robert Weiland, esteemed special educator. Special Education Advisory Council.

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An advisory council of parents to consult on special education issues. Significant Identifiable Emotional Disorder. Term from the Colorado Department of Education Regulations referring to individuals with emotional involvement. Supports Intensity Scale. A psychometric tool created by AAIDD to evaluate practical support requirements of a person with an intellectual disability through a positive and thorough interview process. Supported Living Consultant. Significant Limited Intellectual Capacity. Term from the Colorado Department of Education regulations referring to mentally retarded individuals.

Supported Living Services. Provides services and supports tailored to the needs of the individual living in his or her own home or family home. Senior Management Team. Department directors, executive directors, and senior managers of DDRC. Service Provider Organization. A SPO is an individual or any publicly or privately operated program, organization or business providing service or supports for persons with developmental disabilities. Social Security Disability Income. Federal benefit program sponsored by the Social Security Administration.

Supplemental Security Income. Federal financial benefit program sponsored by the Social Security Administration. Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex. Bending of the neck causes bending of the arms and straightening in legs. Straightening of the neck causes straightening in the arms and bending in legs. The section of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act amendments of that is generally referred to as the civil rights clause for people with disabilities.

Activities which promote or allow for consumer choice and the ability of a consumer or family to use principles of freedom, authority, support and responsibility. The brain's ability to receive, organize and interpret sensory information. Sensory integration programs focus on assisting an individual to increase this capacity. In the development of a child, learning occurs through the interaction between the senses and muscular system.

The child explores by touching, tasting, seeing, smelling, moving, hearing, etc. A computer or device on a network that manages network resources. For example, a file server is a computer and storage device dedicated to storing files. Any user on the network can store files on the server.

A print server is a computer that manages one or more printers, and a network server is a computer that manages network traffic. One or more of the following: education, training, independent or supported living assistance, therapies, identification of natural supports and other activities. Also referred to as the Individualized Plan IP. A Service Provider Organization is an individual or any publicly or privately operated program, organization or business providing service or supports for persons with developmental disabilities.

A technique for teaching new behavior by reinforcing successive approximations to the goal behavior. The process whereby an individual acquires the knowledge, values, facility with language, social skills and social sensitivity that enables him or her to become integrated into and behave adaptively within a society. An individual, discretionary trust prepared for a person who has a disability. This is intended to supplement, not replace government benefits.

A trustee must administer the funds; the person with a disability cannot have direct access to the funds.

The trust should be irrevocable cannot be changed and be written by a lawyer specially trained in elder or Medicaid law. Speech and language pathologists are qualified to diagnose speech, language, voice and fluency stuttering disorders and to plan and implement therapy programs. Accomplishment of a specific task under specific conditions.

Not able to do the task in all situations. Enhanced federal matching payments provided to states which increase the proportion of Medicaid long-term services and supports dollars going toward HCBS, expand covered services and cover individuals with higher levels of need. A person, place, or thing - including light, sound, taste, texture and odor. A stimulus evokes a person to respond in a certain way. Term referring to a bacterial infection caused by the organism streptococcus that may be manifested by upper respiratory or skin symptoms.

Strep is contagious. One who follows another in a particular office. A successor guardian is named to follow the original guardian if the original person or institution can no longer hold office. A successor trustee takes over management of a trust after the initial trustee ceases to act. Families should name a number of successors to ensure someone will outlive the person with the disability. Paid employment for adults with developmental disabilities who, without long-term support, are not likely to succeed in a regular job.

This is an income standard that applies only under an optional Medicaid group elected by the state, and if elected, applies only to people who need an institutional-level care. Traumatic Brain Injury. An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force resulting in total or partial functional eligibility of psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

Targeted Case Management. Case management services which are provided as a Medicaid benefit for a specific target group of Medicaid recipients who have a developmental disability and who meet the program eligibility criteria. Tourette Syndrome. A neurological disorder characterized by tics - involuntary, rapid, sudden movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly in the same way. Refers to the sense of touch. Consists of: a a system of protection, like fight or flight response; b a system of discrimination by which an individual correctly identifies and distinguishes touch sensations.

Condition of automatic stereotypical movements that occur as an undesired effect of therapy with certain psychoactive drugs. Case management services which are provided as a Medicaid benefit for a specific target group of Medicaid recipients having a develop-mental disability and who meet the program eligibility criteria. TASH is an international association of people with disabilities, their family members, other advocates, and professionals working for a society in which inclusion of all people in all aspects of society is the norm.

TASH is concerned with human dignity, civil rights, education, and independence for all individuals with disabilities. A trust set up by a will. A will is the best way to fund or put resources into a Special Needs Trust. Therapeutic Recreation uses treatment, education, and recreation services to help people with disabilities and other conditions to develop and use their leisure in ways that enhance their health, functional abilities, independence, and quality of life.

Federal program that provides funding for programs and services to be offered to the population of persons with developmental disabilities.